GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or otherfunctional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: toassure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a wayto get credit for their work, while not being considered responsiblefor modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivativeworks of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. Itcomplements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleftlicense designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for freesoftware, because free software needs free documentation: a freeprogram should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that thesoftware does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter orwhether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this Licenseprincipally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, thatcontains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can bedistributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants aworld-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use thatwork under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is alicensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if youcopy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permissionunder copyright law.
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing theDocument or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or withmodifications and/or translated into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section ofthe Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of thepublishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overallsubject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could falldirectly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is inpart a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explainany mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historicalconnection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regardingthem.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titlesare designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the noticethat says that the Document is released under this License. If asection does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is notallowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zeroInvariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any InvariantSections then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says thatthe Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text maybe at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,represented in a format whose specification is available to thegeneral public, that is suitable for revising the documentstraightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed ofpixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely availabledrawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters orfor automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for inputto text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent fileformat whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwartor discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amountof text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plainASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGMLor XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simpleHTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples oftransparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formatsinclude proprietary formats that can be read and edited only byproprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/orprocessing tools are not generally available, and themachine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some wordprocessors for output purposes only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the materialthis License requires to appear in the title page. For works informats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" meansthe text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies ofthe Document to the public.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whosetitle either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses followingtext that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for aspecific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements","Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains asection "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice whichstates that this License applies to the Document. These WarrantyDisclaimers are considered to be included by reference in thisLicense, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any otherimplication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and hasno effect on the meaning of this License.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, eithercommercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, thecopyright notices, and the license notice saying this License appliesto the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add noother conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not usetechnical measures to obstruct or control the reading or furthercopying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may acceptcompensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enoughnumber of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, andyou may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly haveprinted covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and theDocument's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose thecopies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these CoverTexts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts onthe back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identifyyou as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must presentthe full title with all words of the title equally prominent andvisible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preservethe title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treatedas verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fitlegibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fitreasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacentpages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numberingmore than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparentcopy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copya computer-network location from which the general network-usingpublic has access to download using public-standard network protocolsa complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensurethat this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the statedlocation until at least one year after the last time you distribute anOpaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of thatedition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of theDocument well before redistributing any large number of copies, togive them a chance to provide you with an updated version of theDocument.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document underthe conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you releasethe Modified Version under precisely this License, with the ModifiedVersion filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distributionand modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copyof it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections orappendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no materialcopied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or allof these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to thelist of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it containsnothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by variousparties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text hasbeen approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of astandard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and apassage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the listof Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage ofFront-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (orthrough arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document alreadyincludes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you orby arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicitpermission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this Licensegive permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert orimply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under thisLicense, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modifiedversions, provided that you include in the combination all of theInvariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, andlist them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in itslicense notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, andmultiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a singlecopy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name butdifferent contents, make the title of each such section unique byadding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the originalauthor or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list ofInvariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sectionsEntitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and otherdocuments released under this License, and replace the individualcopies of this License in the various documents with a single copythat is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rulesof this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in allother respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, anddistribute it individually under this License, provided you insert acopy of this License into the extracted document, and follow thisLicense in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of thatdocument.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separateand independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage ordistribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyrightresulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rightsof the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does notapply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselvesderivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to thesecopies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half ofthe entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed oncovers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or theelectronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the wholeaggregate.
is considered a kind of modification, so you maydistribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires specialpermission from their copyright holders, but you may includetranslations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to theoriginal versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include atranslation of this License, and all the license notices in theDocument, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also includethe original English version of this License and the original versionsof those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement betweenthe translation and the original version of this License or a noticeor disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements","Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserveits Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actualtitle.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Documentexcept as expressly provided under this License. Any attemptotherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, andwill automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your licensefrom a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finallyterminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holderfails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder isreinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of theviolation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you havereceived notice of violation of this License (for any work) from thatcopyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days afteryour receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate thelicenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you underthis License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanentlyreinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material doesnot give you any rights to use it.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of theGNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versionswill be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ indetail to address new problems or concerns. Seehttp://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of thisLicense "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option offollowing the terms and conditions either of that specified version orof any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by theFree Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a versionnumber of this License, you may choose any version ever published (notas a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Documentspecifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of thisLicense can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of aversion permanently authorizes you to choose that version for theDocument.
"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means anyWorld Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and alsoprovides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. Apublic wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the sitemeans any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.
An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the siteunder CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy ofthe License in the document and put the following copyright andlicense notices just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some othercombination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit thesituation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, werecommend releasing these examples in parallel
under your choice offree software license, such as the GNU General Public License,to permit their use in free software.
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